1 hectare of land is proposed to allocate each of the Russian far East and to anyone who wants to move to the far East. So proposed to solve demographic and economic problems of the far Eastern Federal district.
Vladimir Putin has approved the idea of the free allocation of land to each inhabitant of the Far East. "The idea is correct, this has happened before in the history of Russia, when populated Siberia", - said Vladimir Putin. At the same time, the President added that "the modern economy and modern conditions of farming are a bit different, it is important to look at everything carefully and consider all the details".
With the idea to allocate land were made by the presidential envoy in the far Eastern Federal district Yuri Trutnev. Natural population growth in the region over the past year increased by 1,100 people, the outflow has decreased to 20 thousand people. The proposed measure "would help strengthen the trend of influx of population to the far East, because the main is people, without people it is impossible to develop any economy," - said the presidential envoy.
The essence of the project
State-owned the far East is 614 million hectares of land of different categories. A lot of unused land, and the population of the region rapidly decreases.
In order to change the situation and increase the influx of people to the far East, it is proposed to provide each person with 1 hectare of land. Moreover, the land is proposed not only to those who already live in the far East, but also those who only plans to move into the region. "This land can be used for business, hunting, forestry, agriculture", - said the idea of Yuri Trutnev. "Of course there are difficulties with the fact that this land cannot be provided near large cities, because there is a high infrastructure development, high competitive environment, to avoid corruption in the allocation of lands," he added.
To given the land was not vacant for decades, it is proposed initially to provide her for 5 years, "in the case of use then to secure the land for the owner, in the absence of use – take". It is also proposed to restrict the resale of these lands to foreign persons (both legal and physical). The conditions announced by Yury Trutnev, the head of state said "okay".
In conclusion, Vladimir Putin noted that we should be "to see where this land is, it's quality. You should also consider the conditions associated with the need to use this land". Yuri Trutnev, in turn, assured the President that "this initiative is yet to be finalized".
One earth will not be full
The idea is generally good, however, it is still not finalized. In the form in which the idea now is, it is unlikely to work. One land will not be enough to entice Russians living in European Russia, to relocate to the far East, as well as to convince young people of the region to stay where they were born and raised.
The questions this idea raises are not enough. First, the earth is different. It's one thing when a hectare of land close to the city with engineering communications and infrastructure, including road, near shops, kindergartens, schools. It is very different when around the earth the wasteland, to which nothing is carried out and even the road is not normal, one direction. But such lands in the far East a lot.
Secondly, the far East – a land of harsh climate, not all land is suitable for agriculture. Andrey Ostrovsky (Deputy Director of the Institute for Far Eastern studies), commenting on the initiative, said that "the climate in the far East is quite severe. The earth, too. One thing the earth is in the region of the marshes, and another thing – the soil. For the development of agriculture suitable land in the South of Primorsky territory, in the Amur region. In the Khabarovsk region, even the potato is not grown. Not so easy in these parts. Even in the area of BAM unprofitable to settle: too cold and nothing grows. It's wild, absolutely wild, in the best case there you can make a greenhouse," says Ostrovsky.
Greenhouses, of course, possible to develop, but it's still more expensive than traditional agriculture, will require even more initial investment.
"Investing in agriculture for quite a long time to pay off. This is not a trade, where to take the credit, to purchase goods, resell them quickly and immediately to give the loan," recalls Andrew Ostrovsky. In agriculture, low profitability, there is seasonality, the impact occurs only in a few years.
Therefore, to attract the Russians to the far East one ground will not work. You need to provide more cheap loans so that people could come, build a house, farm, greenhouse, or family Fund and to remain living in the far East. To do all this without money is impossible.
If there is absolutely no difference where to take the credit for the arrangement – in the far East or the European part of Russia, the choice is clear. So one free hectare of land will not be able to attract far Eastern lands of the new residents.
Take a look at the Stolypin agrarian reform, which helped in the early twentieth century to resettle people from densely populated areas of the European part on vacant land. "That and the free relocation of the whole family, and loans, and allocation of land. Here and in the far East it is important to ensure access to credit at a reduced rate and to create conditions for agricultural production", - said Andrey Ostrovsky.
In Soviet times, in addition to ideology there were other factors stimulating migration of people from the European part to the East. The state attracted people with high salaries, increasing coefficients, the Northern and far Eastern allowances. Moreover, those who arrived were allocated a place to live – a room in a hostel or a bed, free places in kindergartens.
However, you can find another experience, looking at US. In the nineteenth century settled the Midwest, Iran is not particularly helped the settlers. Eventually, however, the land has got 2 million, was distributed to 115 million hectares (about 12% of the country). But this was a very different time, a different situation than that prevailing now in Russia. And it's not even in the amount allocated to land (then everyone could get a 65 hectares (160 acres) for $10 registration fee). Then USA had to settle in the Midwest, but not at the expense of migration within the country (as it is trying to do now is Russia), but at the expense of foreign immigrants. For a promise to get the land for free driving from all over the world.
Free land in the United States, could get any person over the age of 21 years, and is head of a household (or lonely). Boomer proceeded to the treatment of land, was built (started to build) a structure, and after 5 years received ownership of this land. However, not all who came got it right. Only 40% successful organized management and got 5 years right to the land.
In the history of modern America has also required a relocation, but within the country. This time one earth was not enough. In 2010, several States began the resettlement program. Offered not only free land, but also other benefits. Some States offered monetary grants to build a house, others reduced the cost of communications (water, sewage, etc.) nearly twice, and also gave a reprieve on their payments, and still others calculated the area of land granted free of charge depending on the number of created by the businessman jobs.
And don't get up all this money
No additional benefits for migrants to the far East while it didn't come up. Perhaps this issue will be elaborated in the future. However, all additional benefits, whether it be loans at subsidized rates, or creating a favorable environment for business require public funds.
"It is possible to organize the state program of resettlement, but it takes quite a large amount of money. This money will long to fight back. Currently in the budget and so the hole. The far East has always been quite unprofitable region" - said Ostrovsky, adding that "this initiative is in concrete conditions prevailing in Russia, just unreal, especially if you look at the situation in the economy."
On the other hand, it is planned to solve the problem of budget reduction and the use of accumulated reserves. In addition, the development of agriculture and the Russian Far East is one of the directions of national policy for food. Investing in such a program now, it is possible in the future to help the economy to bounce back.
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